نوع مقاله : مقالات

نویسندگان

دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، طراحی و تبیین ابعاد خودرهبری برمبنای نظام ارزشی اسلام با استفاده از آموزه­های قرآن کریم و نهج­البلاغه است. این پژوهش به روش کیفی - کمی (ترکیبی) انجام شده است و برای استخراج ابعاد و طراحی مدل از روش تحلیل مضمون و مصاحبه با متخصصین موضوعی و برای آزمون مدل از روش مدل­سازی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شده است. در بخش کیفی، ابتدا متون قرآن کریم و نهج­البلاغه از منظر مفاهیم مرتبط با خودرهبری (رهبری، خودرهبری، خود مدیریتی، خودکنترلی) مورد بررسی و تحلیل قرار گرفته و 1536 مضمون اولیه از قرآن کریم و 435 مضمون اولیه از نهج­البلاغه استخراج گردید. سپس با استفاده از تلخیص و مقوله‌بندی به روش کد­گذاری با تأکید بر مفاهیم مشترک در سه مرحله، ابتدا 214 مضمون ثانویه و سپس 79 تم فرعی و 20 تم اصلی شناسایی شد. درنهایت نیز 20 تم­ اصلی استخراج شده در چهار دسته مفهوم اصلی، پیش‌نیازها، راهبردها و نتایج خودرهبری طبقه‌بندی گردید. در بخش کمی، فرضیه­های پژوهش بر روی نمونه­ای شامل 300 نفر از مدیران گروه توسعه سرمایه‌گذاری انتخاب بررسی شد. نتایج بخش کمی نشان داد که پیش­نیازها و راهبردهای خودرهبری هردو با ضریب بتای 97% بر مفهوم اصلی خودرهبری تأثیر دارند و مفهوم اصلی خودرهبری نیز با ضریب بتای 89% بر نتایج خودرهبری تأثیرگذار است. پژوهش حاضر از دو منظر ارائه مدل جامع خودرهبری (به دلیل انجام پژوهش­های متعدد در این حوزه ولی فقط در بخش راهبردهای خودرهبری) و همچنین تبیین مفهوم خودرهبری بر اساس آموزه­های نظام ارزشی اسلام، دارای نوآوری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing a model for self-leadership based on instructions of holy quran and nahj al-balaghah

نویسندگان [English]

  • amirmasoud ataei
  • ali safari
  • mohammadsaleh tayebnia

چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1-INTRODUCTION
The self-leadership concept is a popular topic in leadership and management studies, which has attracted a lot of attention during the past few decades. the purpose of the present study was to develop a comprehensive model to explain the dimensions of self-leadership based on instructions in the holy quran and nahj al-balaghah. in other words, it was to look at the concept of self-leadership based on islamic teachings to extract the effects of different cultural and religious conditions.
2-THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Self-leadership is a process of behavioral and mental strategies through which individuals influence themselves to control and manage their behaviors. while self-leadership is closely related to concepts such as the need for success, self-regulation, and self-control, it should be considered as an independent concept. therefore, it may have outcomes different from that of similar concepts. this concept is developed based on four theories of self-regulation, self-management, social cognition, and intrinsic motivation. previous studies identified three distinct but complementary strategies for self-leadership including the behavioral, natural reward, and thought-building strategies.
3-METHODOLOGY
This was a mixed-methods study. in the qualitative phase, it has interviewed a number of experts, and based on thematic analysis it extracted the dimensions of self-leadership. in the quantitative phase, it has utilized structural equation modeling to validate the findings of the previous phase. the qualitative sample was comprised of 17 experts in different fields of islamic management (such as quranic and nahj al-balaghah sciences) selected by conducting purposeful sampling. the participants in the qualitative phase have revised and confirmed the final codes, themes, and model. in the next phase, to test the research hypotheses, quantitative data was gathered from a sample size of 300 encompassing the managers of entekhab investment development group using a researcher-made questionnaire.
4-RESULTS & DISCUSSION
First, self-leadership and its relevant concepts were studied from the viewpoint of holy quran and nahj al-balaghah. according to the initial analysis, 1,536 and 435 codes were respectively extracted from holy quran and nahj al-balaghah. after summarizing these initial codes in three stages, 214 secondary codes emerged that were classified into 79 sub-themes and 20 themes. these themes were finally categorized into four categories called self-leadership antecedents, main concept, strategies, and results. themes included recognizing oneself, recognizing god, recognizing the opponents and enemies, recognizing the environment and surroundings, activating perceptual inputs, creating internal affecting factors, creating external affecting factors, and understanding the necessity of self-leadership were the eight antecedents of self-leadership. the main-concept of self-leadership encompassed the five themes of self-assessment, self-motivation, self-challenging, self-improvement, and self-protection. four strategies of mental, behavioral, mental-behavioral, and ethical were identified as self-leadership strategies. and finally, it was determined that self-leadership outcomes encompass three categories of life, the afterlife, and life-afterlife results. quantitative findings revealed that both the antecedents and strategies of self-leadership positively affected the main concept of self-leadership with a coefficient of 0.97. the main concept also positively affected the self-leadership results with a coefficient of 0.89. since the literature on self-leadership is limited to strategies and results of self-leadership, it should be noted that the findings on its antecedents and main concept cannot be completely interpreted by literature. the findings on self-leadership strategies and results, however, are consistent with the existing literature.
5-CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Based on obtained results, it is suggested that individuals especially managers must first manage themselves. the managers need to establish the prerequisites of self-leadership in themselves and simultaneously utilize its strategies to benefit from the mentioned results. it should be noted that since the self-leadership strategies positively affected its main concept on the one hand and the main concept affected the results on the other, it is not far-fetched the positive effect of strategies on results. this issue is in line with the existing literature. in terms of directions for research, it is suggested that future researchers approach the other leadership concepts such as authentic, inspirational, charismatic, pragmatic, and transformational leadership from the viewpoint of islamic teachings and expand these concepts in models based on the value system of islam.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Leadership
  • self-leadership
  • Holy Quran
  • Nahj al-Balagha
  • Thematic Analysis
References
Holy Quran
Abili, K.; khabaze, K.; Mazari, E., & Graile, B. (2016). The role of self-leadership and self-management on human capital in service public organizations (case: ministry of cooperative, labour and social welfare). Journal of Public Administration, 26, 93-112. (In Persian)
Abbasi Rostami, N., (2014). A review of self-leadership theory (concepts, strategies and factors influencing self-leadership). Journal of Human Resource Development, 34, 123-140. (In Persian)
Adler, N. J. (1997). Global leadership: women leaders. MIR: Management International Review, 171-196
Ahmad, K., & Ogunsola, O. K. (2011). An empirical assessment of Islamic leadership principles. International Journal of Commerce and Management21(3), 291-318.
Ahmad, K. (2009). Leadership and work motivation from the cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Commerce and Management19(1), 72-84.‏
Ali, A. J. (2005). Islamic perspectives on management and organization. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar publishing.
Alves, J. C.; Lovelace, K. J.; Manz, C. C.; Matsypura, D.; Toyasaki, F., & Ke, K. (2006). A cross-cultural perspective of self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology21(4), 338-359
Antonakis, J., & House, R. J. (2014). Instrumental leadership: measurement and extension of transformational–transactional leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly25(4), 746-771.‏
Aslani, F., & Hozoori, M. J. (2015). Design and define the organizational self-leadership model based on grounded data approach (case study: PNU). Journal of Management, Economics and Accounting, Public Organization Management, 9, 39-54. (In Persian)
Avolio, B. J.; Reichard, R. J.; Hannah, S. T.; Walumbwa, F. O., & Chan, A. (2009). A meta-analytic review of leadership impact research: experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The leadership quarterly20(5), 764-784.‏
Ay, F. A.; Karakaya, A., & Yilmaz, K. (2015). Relations between Self-leadership and critical thinking skills. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 207, 29-41.   
Anseel, F.; Beatty, A. S.; Shen, W.; Lievens, F., & Sackett, P. R. (2015). How are we doing after 30 years? a meta-analytic review of the antecedents and outcomes of feedback-seeking behavior. Journal of Management, 41(1), 318-348.
Bailey, S. F.; Barber, L. K., & Justice, L. M. (2018). Is self-leadership just self-regulation? exploring construct validity with HEXACO and self-regulatory traits. Current Psychology37(1), 149-161.‏
Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation.  Organizational behavior and human decision processes50(2), 248-287.
Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of personality and social psychology41(3), 586.‏
Beekun, R., & Badawi, J. (1999a). Leadership: an islamic perspective. beltsville: amana publication.
Beekun, R., & Badawi, J. (1999b). The leadership process in Islam. A Journal of Ideas, Leaders and Leadership, 16(2), 33−38.
Begley, P. T. (2006). Self-knowledge, capacity and sensitivity: Prerequisites to authentic leadership by school principals. Journal of Educational Administration44(6), 570-589.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology3(2), 77-101.‏
Bryant, A., & Kazan, A. L. (2012). Self-leadership: how to become a more successful, efficient, and effective leader from the inside out. McGraw Hill professional.‏
Campbell, R. A. (2008). Leadership succession in early Islam: exploring the nature and role of historical precedents. The leadership quarterly19(4), 426-438.‏
Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. (2001). On the self-regulation of behavior. cambridge university press.‏
Chepurna, M., & Rialp Criado, J. (2018). Identification of barriers to co-create on-line: the perspectives of customers and companies”, Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 12(4), pp. 452-471
Connerley, M. L., & Pedersen, P. B. (2005). Leadership in a diverse and multicultural environment: Developing awareness, knowledge, and skills. Sage Publications
Danaeifard, H., & Moumeni, N. (2008). The theory of effective ledership in Imam Ali's view: strategy of data –based textual theory. Journal of Islamic revolution studies, 4(14), 75-110. (In Persian)
Daniëls, E.; Hondeghem, A., & Dochy, F. (2019). A review on leadership and leadership development in educational settings. Educational Research Review.
Dashti, M. (2000). Translation of Nahj al-Balaghah. Moshfeghin publication. (In Persian)
Davari, A., & Rezazadeh, A. (2013). Structural equation modeling with PLS. Tehran: Jahad University, 215(2), 224.‏ (In Persian)
Dickson, M. W.; Den Hartog, D. N., & Mitchelson, J. K. (2003). Research on leadership in a cross-cultural context: making progress, and raising new questions. The leadership quarterly14(6), 729-768.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Intrinsic motivation. The corsini encyclopedia of psychology
Dolan, S. L., & Lingham, T. (2008). Fundamentals of international organizational behavior. Sara Books.‏
Dolbier, C. L.; Soderstrom, M., & Steinhardt, M. A. (2001). The relationships between self-leadership and enhanced psychological, health, and work outcomes. The Journal of Psychology135(5), 469-485.‏
Dorfman, P.; Javidan, M.; Hanges, P.; Dastmalchian, A., & House, R. (2012). GLOBE: a twenty-year journey into the intriguing world of culture and leadership. Journal of World Business47(4), 504-518.
Eti-Tofinga, B.; Douglas, H., & Singh, G. (2017). Influence of evolving culture on leadership: a study of Fijian cooperatives. European Business Review29(5), 534-550.‏
Faris, N., & Parry, K. (2011). Islamic organizational leadership within a Western society: the problematic role of external context. The leadership quarterly22(1), 132-151
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research18(1), 39-50.‏
Frayne, C. A., & Geringer, J. M. (2000). Self-management training for improving job performance: a field experiment involving salespeople. Journal of Applied Psychology85(3), 361.‏
Furtner, M. R.; Tutzer, L., & Sachse, P. (2018). The mindful self-leader: Investigating the relationships between self-leadership and mindfulness. Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal46(3), 353-360.‏
Furtner, M. R.; Rauthmann, J. F., & Sachse, P. (2015). Unique self-leadership: a bifactor model approach. Leadership, 11(1), 105-125.‏
Georgianna, S. (2007). Self-leadership: a cross-cultural perspective.  Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(6), 569-589.‏
Gonos, J., & Gallo, P. (2013). Model for leadership style evaluation. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues18(2), 157-168.
Hair, J. F.; Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: indeed, a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice19(2), 139-152.‏
House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: Quo vadis? Journal of Management23(3), 409-473.‏
House, R. J.; Hanges, P. J.; Javidan, M.; Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (Eds.). (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: the GLOBE study of 62 societies. sage publications
Hoveida, R.; Siadat, A.; Aghababaei, R., & Rahimi, H. (2011). A study of the relationship between the self- leadership behavioral focused strategies and creativity among the faculty members of Iran University of Science and Technology, Foundations of Education1(1), 127-142. (In persian)
Khan, A. (2007). a model of success for everyone at all times, Islamic leadership principles.
Khorasani, A.; Soleimani, S., & Farahabadi, J. A. (2012). The role of self-leadership strategies in psychological empowerment of Mashhad education department staff, Journal of Career and Organization Consulting, 11(4), 95 (In Persian)
Ladkin, D., & Taylor, S. S. (2010). Enacting the ‘true self’: towards a theory of embodied authentic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly21(1), 64-74.
Makarem Shirazi, N. (1995). Nemooneh interpretation, Tehran (In persian)
Manz, C. C. (1986). Self-leadership: toward an expanded theory of self-influence processes in organizations. Academy of Management review,11(3), 585-600.
Manz, C. C., & Sims Jr, H. P. (1980). Self-management as a substitute for leadership: a social learning theory perspective. Academy of Management review, 5(3), 361-367.‏
Manz, C. C., & Sims Jr, H. P. (1991). Superleadership: beyond the myth of heroic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 19(4), 18-35.‏
Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P. (2001). The new super leadership: Leading others to lead themselves. berrett-koehler publishers.‏
Müller, T., & Niessen, C. (2018). Self-leadership and self-control strength in the work context. Journal of Managerial Psychology33(1), 74-92.
Neck, C. P.; Manz, C. C., & Houghton, J. D. (2019). Self-leadership: the definitive guide to personal excellence. SAGE Publications.‏
Neck, C. P. (1996). Thought self-leadership: a self-regulatory approach towards overcoming resistance to organizational change. The International Journal of Organizational Analysis4(2), 202-216.
Neck, C. P., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Two decades of self-leadership theory and research: past developments, present trends, and future possibilities. Journal of Managerial Psychology21(4), 270-295.       
Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2013). Mastering self-leadership: empowering yourself for personal excellence. pearson.‏
Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (1992). Thought self-leadership: the influence of self‐talk and mental imagery on performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior13(7), 681-699.‏
Ng, J. (2017). Unleashing the greatness in you: the power of self-leadership. world scientific books.
Pina e Cunha, M.; Pacheco, M.; Castanheira, F., & Rego, A. (2017). Reflexive work and the duality of self-leadership. leadership13(4), 472-495.‏
Rafique, M.; Hameed, S., & Agha, M. H. (2018). Commonality, conflict, and absorptive capacity: clarifying middle manager roles in the pharmaceutical industry, Management Decision, 56(9), 1904-1916.
Rajaeepoor, S.; Rahimi, H., & Aghababaei, R. (2012). The analysis of self-leadership strategies and its relationship with psychological empowerment faculty members at University of Isfahan medical science, 4(7), 1-9. (In persian)
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2012). Essentials of organizational behavior.‏
Renton, M., & Simmonds, H. (2017). Like is a verb: exploring tie strength and casual brand use effects on brand attitudes and consumer online goal achievement, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 26(4), 365-374
Stewart, G. L.; Carson, K. P., & Cardy, R. L. (1996). The joint effects of conscientiousness and self‐leadership training on employee self‐directed behavior in a service setting. Personnel Psychology49(1), 143-164.
Stewart, G. L.; Courtright, S. H., & Manz, C. C. (2019). Self-leadership: a paradoxical core of organizational behavior. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 6, 47-67.‏
Stewart, G. L.; Courtright, S. H., & Manz, C. C. (2011). Self-leadership: a multilevel review. Journal of Management, 37(1), 185-222.‏
Tabatabaei, H.; Babaei, M. R.; Azizlou, H., & Loghmani, M. (2016). Handbook of management and leadership: developing effective people skills for better leadership and management. Iran human resource management association, Tehran, Ronas publication. (In Persian)
Thoresen, C. E., & Mahoney, M. J. (1974). Behavioral self-control. Holt McDougal.‏
Unsworth, K. L., & Mason, C. M. (2012). Help yourself: the mechanisms through which a self-leadership intervention influences strain. Journal of occupational health psychology17(2), 235.‏
Vaeazi, M.; Mazari, E.; Khabareh, K.; Moghaddamzadeh, A., & Shalbaf, A. (2015). Factor analysis of students' self-leadership strategies and their relationship with academic performance (case: Birjand university students of science and literature). Journal of new educational approaches, 22, 1-20. (In Persian)
Yu, S., & Ko, Y. (2017). Communication competency as a mediator in the self-leadership to job performance relationship. Collegian, 24(5), 421-425.‏
Yukl, G. A. (2012). Leadership in organizations. Pearson Education India.‏
Yun, S.; Cox, J., & Sims Jr, H. P. (2006). The forgotten follower: a contingency model of leadership and follower self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology21(4), 374-388.‏
Zhu, J.; Song, L. J.; Zhu, L., & Johnson, R. E. (2019). Visualizing the landscape and evolution of leadership research. The Leadership Quarterly30(2), 215-232.‏