نوع مقاله : مقالات

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت دولتی، واحد زاهدان، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، زاهدان، ایران

2 استاد گروه مدیریت دولتی، موسسه آموزش عالی غیر دولتی-غیر انتفاعی اسرار، مشهد، ایران

3 استادیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

4 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی و اولویت‌بندی ابعاد جبران خدمات و پاداش کارکنان و مدیران گمرک جمهوری اسلامی ایران در منطقه جنوب شرق کشور انجام شده است. روش پژوهش متوالی- اکتشافی بود.  برای جمع‌آوری داده­ها در بخش کیفی از روش مطالعه و مصاحبه نیمه ساختاریافته و جهت تحلیل داده­ها از روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی و در بخش کمی از پرسشنامة­ محقق­ساخته استفاده شد. روش نمونه‌گیری در بخش کیفی از نوع هدفمند و تکنیک گلوله برفی و در بخش کمی تصادفی طبقه­ای بود. جامعة آماری در بخش کیفی 30 نفر از مدیران، معاونان، رؤسای اداره‌ها و کارشناسان اداری و مالی و در بخش کمی شامل کلیه کارکنان و مدیران گمرک­های منطقه جنوب شرق کشور هستند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش مدلی از جبران خدمات و پاداش کارکنان و مدیران گمرک بود که در دو دسته عوامل برون­سازمانی و عوامل درون­سازمانی طبقه‌بندی گردید، در مقوله عوامل برون­سازمانی مهم­ترین بعد به ترتیب عبارت از عوامل محیطی- اقتصادی، عوامل فرهنگی-اجتماعی و اسناد بالادستی است. در مقوله عوامل درون­سازمانی مهم‌ترین  ابعاد به ترتیب عبارت از عوامل غیر مالی-شغلی و عوامل غیرمالی-محیط شغلی، عوامل مالی-غیرمستقیم، عوامل سازمانی، عوامل مالی مستقیم، عوامل مربوط به شاغل (فردی) و چشم­انداز سازمان هستند. مهم­ترین گویه در مقوله عوامل برون­سازمانی، گویة تحریم­های پولی و مالی بوده است. مهم­ترین گویه در عوامل درون­سازمانی گویة  فوق­العاده بهره­وری  و پاداش انگیزشی بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying and prioritizing the components of compensation for the customs employees and managers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Habibollah Doaei 2
  • Ebrahim Haddadi 1
  • Aleme Keikha 3
  • Abdolali Keshtegar 4

2 asrar

3 University of Zabol

4 Sistan and Baluchestan University

چکیده [English]

Extended abstract
1- INTRODUCTION
The compensation is a thing beyond the living needs of employees. compensation affects the characteristics of employees who are hired and stay in the organization, their competency and expertise, the probability of accepting a job by them, and the level of their motivation and performance. compensation is capable of determining the employees’ behavior and the organization’s productivity in all respects. accordingly, with a futuristic approach, the main purpose of the present research is to identify prioritize the components of compensation for employees and managers of the southeast islamic republic of Iran’s customs administration (IRICA).
2- THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The present research has conducted several interviews and analyzed them by the qualitative content analysis technique to determine the affecting factors of compensation for understudy employees and managers. In this regard, it attributed the codes to concepts and then categorized the concepts by adapting the thoughts in Memarzadeh Tehran et al., Nemati et al., Jazani, Towers Perrin, Doaei, Abili and Moafaghi, and Mirsepassi.
3- METHODOLOGY
This research is an applied study in terms of purpose, and in regard to the procedure, it is a mixed-methods study with an exploratory-consecutive approach. in the qualitative phase, the sample size was 30 which was finalized based on the theoretical saturation rule, and participants were selected by a purposeful sampling method implemented using the snowball technique. since the population size was 1153, in the quantitative phase, 291 persons were selected based on krejcie and morgan’s table by conducting a proportional stratified sampling method. the validity of the qualitative study was assessed by the relative content analysis, and the holsti coefficient used to evaluate its reliability. the validity of the quantitative study was assessed by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability also evaluated using cronbach’s alpha and composite reliability coefficients. the qualitative research data were analyzed by content analysis, and for quantitative data analysis, structural equation modeling was used.
4- RESULTS & DISCUSSION
Research results revealed 72 factors affecting the staff compensation in the form of two main components (extra- and intra-organizational factors) and 10 sub-components (economic-environmental, social-cultural, direct financial, indirect financial, job non-financial, job environment non-financial, personal, and organizational factors along with organizational vision and upstream documents). No research was found as comprehensive as the current one in exploring the components of compensation in customs administration offices. However, the obtained results are consistent with that of Zafari in regard to direct and indirect financial factors and job environment; with Ozma et al. regards to job non-financial and job environment non-financial factors; with Patnaik and Suar regards to personal and environmental factors; with Memarzadeh Tehran et al. regards to organizational and social factors; with Jazani regards to direct financial, indirect financial, job non-financial, and job environment non-financial factors; with Seyed Javadin regards to direct and indirect factors; with Goh and Gupta regards to personal and organizational factors; with Mphil et al. regards to the direct and indirect compensation.
5- CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
Research results reached a compensation model for customs administration comprised of two components, 10 categories, and 72 factors. it is suggested to both the customs and the government to simultaneously examine the appropriate policies in order to reduce the negative effects of monetary and financial sanctions on government revenues and subsequently on the public organizations’ budget. the customs managers are recommended to interact with clients and provide them with information on problems not necessarily caused by customs. they are also recommended to provide employees with proper feedback to motivate them and improve their performance. if possible, it is better for employees to perform all the stages of a job process on their own instead of doing only an insignificant part of it.
Finally, it is suggested to design a mechanism in order to relate employees’ productivity reward with their share of customs revenues and serving the clients. the productivity reward should not be constant and or based on the supervisors' taste.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Compensation
  • Reward System
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Customs Administration
  • Futuristic Approach
Refrences
Aberbach, J. D.; Putnam, R. D., & Rockman, B. A. (1981). Bureaucrats and politicians in western democracies. Harvard university press.
Abili, K., & Moafaghi, H. (2015). Human resource management (with emphasis on new approaches). second edition, publications of industrial management organization. (in Persian)
Abolhassani, F.; Syarifard, A.; Ghadirian, L.; Nazari, M., & Farshadi, M. (2018). Designing and implementing a model of employee remuneration system at selected hospital of Tehran university of medical sciences. Pae'esh Journal, 17(6), 647-656. (in Persian)
Armstrong, M. (2007). A handbook of employee reward management and practice. 2nd ed., kogan page, Philadelphia.
Bazargan Harandi, A. (2008). Mixed method research design: a prefferable approach in management studies. Management Knowledge, 21(81), 19-36. (in Persian)
Blaikie, N. (2005). Designing social research, translation by Hassan Chavoshian, Tehran: Ney publishing. (in Persian)
Coccia, M. & Igor, B. (2018). Rewards in public administration: a proposed classification. Journal of Social and Administrative Sciences, 5(2), 68-80.
Coccia, M., & Cadario, E. (2014). Organisational (un) learning of public research labs in turbulent context. International Journal of Innovation and Learning, 15(2), 115-129.
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2007). How research policy changes can affect the organization and productivity of public research institutes, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis Research and Practice, 9(3), 215-233.
Coccia, M., & Rolfo, S. (2013). Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions. International Journal of Public Administration, 36(4), 256-268.
Cohen, M.; Ben-Zur, H., & Rosenfeld, M. L. (2007). Sense of coherence, coping strategies, and test anxiety as predictors of test performance among college students. International Journal of Stress Management, 15(3), 289-303.
Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory (3rd ed.). thousand oaks, CA: sage.
Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications, social science - 246 pages.
Danaei Fard, H., & Emami, S. M. (2007). Qualitative research strategies: reflection on foundation data theory. Management Thought, 1(2). (in Persian)
Dubios, D. D., & Rothwell, W. J. (2018). Competency- based human resource management, translated by Fereshteh Amin and Fatemeh Karami, second edition, Tehran, university of Tehran press. (in Persian)
Dineen, B. R., & Williamson, I. O. (2012). Screening-oriented recruitment messages: Antecedents and relationships with applicant pool quality. Human Resource Management, 51, 343–360.
Divandari, A.; Nazari, M.; Seyed Javadin, S. R.; Haji Karimi, A. A., & Raij, H. (2018). Investigating the impact of service compensation on individual performance: an investigating the mediating role of self-efficacy and moderating self-efficacy and expectation study: bank of mellat). Journal of Business Management, 10(3), 673-694. (in Persian)
Doaei, H. (2013). Human resource management (a practical approach). seventh edition. Mashhad: Bayan hedayat noor publications. (in Persian)
Ferris, S. P.; Liao, M., Tamm, C. (2018).  The compensation of busy directors: an international analysis. Research in International Business and Finance, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ribaf.2018.04.003
Gall, M. D.; Borg, W. R., & Gall, J. P. (2004). Quantitative and qualitative research methods in educational sciences and psychology. translated by Ahmad Reza Nasr et al., Tehran, Samt publication. (in Persian)
Gerhart, B., & Rynes, S. L. (2003). Compensation: theory, evidence, and strategic implications. thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goh, L., Gupta, A. (2015). Remuneration of non-executive directors: evidence from the UK. The British Accounting Review, 48(3), 379-399.
Greene, J. & Caracelli, V. (2003). Making paradigmatic sense of mixed methos inquiry. in handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research, Tashakkori, A & Teddlie, C. (Eds) 2003, Sage, California.
Gupta, N.; Conroy, S., & Delery, J. E. (2012). The many faces of pay variation. Human Resource Management Review, 22, 100–115.
Hassanpour, A. (2009). Advanced human resource management. Tehran: Yekan publishing.
Heneman, H. G.; Schwab D. P.; Fossum, J. A., & Dyer, L. D. (1987). Personnel / human resource management.  Richard D irwin. 4th edition.
 Holsti, O. R. (1969). Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley publishing company.
Holt, D. H. (1993). Management: concept and practices. New Jersey: erentice hall, englewood cliffs.
Institute for Management and Human Resources. (2013). A review on the Status of offsetting services in the Iranian and world oil Industry. [Report], Tehran. (in Persian)
Ivancevich, J. M., & Glueck, W. F. (1989). Foundations of personnel/human management. 21397-409.Lazear, E. 1986. Salaries and piece rates. Journal of Business,59, 405-31.
Jazani, N. (2001). Human resource management. second edition. Ney publication. (in Persian)
Jenkins, G. D., Jr.; Mitra, A.; Gupta, N., & Shaw, J. D. (1998). Are financial incentives related to performance? A meta-analytic review of empirical research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 777–787
Karami, A. (2014). Introduction to test construction and psychological tests. Rvansanji publishing, thirteenth edition, Tehran. (in Persian)
Karimi, A.; Teymouri, H.; Shahin, A., & Shayemi Borzeki, A. (2018). Designing a competent performance-based assessment system with substitution approach. Journal of Publicl Organizations Management, 6(2), 95-108. (in Persian)
Keynia, M. (2013). Fundamentals of criminology. vol.1, Tehran: university of Tehran publications. (in Persian)
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575.
Lee, J. (2001). A grounded theory: integration and internalization in ERP adoption and use. unpublished doctoral dissertation, university of Nebreska, in Proquest UMI database.
Mabaso, C. M., & Dlamini, B. I. (2018). Total rewards and its effects on organizational commitment in higher education institutions. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(0), a913.
Mahmoudzadeh, M., & Mollaesmaeil, M. (2016). Examine the relationship between financial services compensation (direct and indirect) with manpower productivity in the national iranian oil refining and distribution company. Journal of Farayandno, 3(55), 99-108. (in Persian)
Memarzadeh Tehran, G. R.; Nasiripour, A. A., & Aghababaei Dehagani, Z. (2012). Designing a compensation model for specialist physicians in public hospitals of Tehran. Two Quarterly Journal of Human Resource Management Research, Imam Hussein university (AS), 4(2), 23-49. (in Persian)
Milkovich, G., & Newman M. J. (2002), Compensation; New York: McGraw-Hill.
Mirsepassi, N. (2003). Strategic human resource management & labor relations with a glance at globalization trend. twenty-second edition, Tehran, Mir publishing. (in Persian)
Mitchell, T. R.; Holtom, B. C., & Lee, T. W. (1993). Human resource and personnel management. New York: McGraw hill, Inc.
Mphil, A.; Ramazan, M.; Zubair, H. K.; Ali, Gh., & Arsalan, M. (2014). Impact of compensation on employee performance (emprical evidence from banking sector of Pakistan). International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(2), 302-309.
Nemati, S.; Khayef Elahi, A. A., & Momeni, N. (2013). Designing a compensation system in knowledge-based organizations using structural-interpretive modeling approach. Human Resource Management Research, 3(2), 131-151. (in Persian)
Ozma, A.; Jafarinia, S.; Hassanpoor, A., & Kheirandish, M. (2019). Discovering and explaining a model of compensation system: a case study of the staff working in a selected public university. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 16(4), 384-398.
Patnaik, P., & Suar, D. (2019). Analyses of publications on compensation management from 2004 to 2017. Compensation & Benefits Review,00(0), 1-22.
Perry, J. L., & Porter, L.W. (1982). Factors affecting the context for motivation in public organization. Academy of Management Review, 7(1), 89–98.
Plano Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. second edition. Sage publications. university of Cincinnati, OH.
Price, J. L. (1989). The impact of turnover on the organization. Work and Occupations, 16, 461–473.
Rahimi, F.; Khalilipour, H.; Kamai Bahami, S.; Saber Rad, L., & Torkashvand, M. (2017). Impact of financial and non-financial rewards of hospital on perceived job attractiveness and nurses' performance. Journal of Health Research, 2(4), 253-262. (in Persian)
Reif, W. E. (1975). Intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards: resolving the controversy. Human Resources Management, 14(2), 2-9.
Saks, A. M.; Wiesner, W. H., & Summers, R. J. (1996). Effects of job previews and compensation policy on applicant attraction and job choice. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 68–85.
Schuster, J., & Zingheim, P. (1992). The new pay: linking employee and organisational performance. lexington books, New York.
Seyed Javadin, S. R. (2016). Human resources and personnel management. Negahedanesh pablication. ninth edition, Tehran. (in Persian)
Shaw, J. D., & Gupta, N. (2007). Pay system characteristics and quit patterns of good, average, and poor performers. Personnel Psychology, 60, 903–928.
Towers Perrin (2005). Reconnecting with employees: Quantifying the value of engaging your workforce. London: Towers Perrin.
Tropman, J. E. (2001). The compensation solution: how to develop an employee-driven. USA: university of Michigan business school management series, Jossey-bass publications.
Vohs, K. D.; Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science, 314, 1154–1156.
Vohs, K. D.; Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2008). Merely activating the concept of money changes personal and interpersonal behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 208–212.
Wittmer, D. (1991). Serving the people or serving for pay: Reward preferences among government, hybrid sector and business managers. Public Productivity and Management Review, 14(4), 369–383.
Zafari, A. (2017). Identification and prioritization of compensation components (Case Study: Bank of Day). Kharazmi university, MSc thesis, school of management. (in Persian)
Zhou, X.; Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). The symbolic power of money: reminders of money alter social distress and physical pain. Psychological Science, 20, 700–706.