نوع مقاله : مقالات

نویسندگان

استادیار، گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

چکیده
انفعال و بی­تفاوتی مدیران، بی­تمدنی را به امری فراگیر در سازمان تبدیل می­کند و آسیب­های فراوان مادی و معنوی را به سازمان‌ها و جوامع وارد می­سازد؛ ازاین­رو تحقیق حاضر به «بررسی رابطه بین رهبری منفعل و بی­تمدنی سازمانی با نقش میانجی بی­تمدنی تجربه شده در محیط کار» می­پردازد. روش تحقیق، توصیفی از نوع همبستگی و جامعۀ آماری شامل تمامی کارکنان شرکت عمران کار سیرجان به تعداد 162 نفر و روش نمونه­گیری به شیوه سرشماری است. ابزار اندازه‌گیری شامل سه پرسشنامه رهبری منفعل بأس و اولیوو (1990)، بی­تمدنی سازمانی بلاو و آندرسون (2005) و بی­تمدنی تجربه شده کورتینا و همکاران (2001) است. نتایج تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها نشان داد که میان رهبری منفعل و بی­تمدنی سازمانی با نقش میانجی بی­تمدنی تجربه شده رابطه معناداری دارد. همچنین رهبری منفعل با بی­تمدنی سازمانی، رهبری منفعل با بی­تمدنی تجربه شده و نیز بی­تمدنی تجربه شده با بی­تمدنی سازمانی رابطه معناداری دارد. بر مبنای نتایج این پژوهش در گام اول بایستی از انتخاب مدیران منفعل جلوگیری شود و در مرحله بعد مدیران با مجازات متخلفین شکل دهندة رفتارهای انحرافی و پرداخت پاداش به رفتارهای شایسته و مثبت در جهت تقویت رفتارهای مدنی گام بردارند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Relationship between Passive Leadership and Organizational Incivility Moderated by Experienced Incivility

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Fathiizadeh
  • Reza Zare

Assistant professor, Department of Public management, Payame Noor University,

چکیده [English]

Extended abstract

INTRODUCTION

Rudeness, impoliteness, and indecent behaviors, which represent incivility, have become a norm in almost all aspects of modern societies and have been recognized as one of the pervasive antisocial behaviors in the workplace. Behavioral incompatibilities occur when an employee treats other employees with counterproductive behaviors, which reflects the level of workplace incivility among the staff. However, experienced incivility is a level of incivility experienced by employees in the face of their colleagues. Over the past few decades, special attention has been paid to leadership and it has been recognized as the most important factor for organizational success/failure.
 

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION OF RESEARCH

Passive or non-transactional leadership refers to leaders’ refraining from taking action and lack of directing the followers. The source of organizational incivility is managers, colleagues, and customers. According to the social interaction theory, the presence of a passive leader may intensify the effect of experienced compatibility on behavioral compatibility. Employees working for passive leaders deal with more of these behaviors from their colleagues in case of a positive relationship between passive leadership and behavioral incompatibility. Scholars believe that almost all employees have had a similar reaction to the experienced incivility. Working for a passive leader increases the chance of workplace incivility, which might increase this type of behavior in the employee.
 

METHODOLOGY

This research was an applied study in terms of purpose, s descriptive field study regarding the type of research, and a correlational study in terms of the relationship between variables. The statistical population included all the staff of Omran Kar Company with a total number of 162 in 2017, all of whom were studied by census sampling. Data was collected using Avolio and Bass’s (1990) passive leadership questionnaire, Blau and Andersson’s (2005) organizational incivility questionnaire, and Cortina et al.’s (2001) workplace incivility scale questionnaire. In the end, 154 well-qualified questionnaires were analyzed, and the validity and reliability of results confirmed by content and convergent validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients.
 

RESULTS

According to the one-sample t-test results, t-values of 17.549, 13.278, and 12.823 respectively for passive leadership, organizational incivility, and experienced incivility showed that their mean values were significantly different from three. Overall, for all three variables, the mean value was above moderate. The effect of passive leadership on organizational incivility (t=2.43, r=0.57) and experienced incivility (t=4.84, r=0.74) were statistically significant. The effect of experienced incivility on organizational incivility (t=3.32, r=0.66) was also confirmed. Accordingly, in Omran Kar Co., passive leadership had a significant indirect effect on organizational incivility through the mediating role of employees’ experienced incivility.
 

DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

To fail in actively depicting positive social norms and preventive measures required for controlling negative behaviors can increase informal behaviors in the workplace, which leads to incivility. Situational factors that lead to informal behaviors, such as managerial methods and policies, increase workplace insecurity. According to the social interaction framework, situational factors increase the repetition of uncivilized behavioral incompatibility. Managers who actively participate in the tasks assigned to their workers are forced to solve the problems occurring due to negative and uncivilized behaviors of employees, which decreases this type of behavioral incompatibilities. In contrast, a leader who fails to intervene and punish the person at fault cannot reinforce the correct behavior implicitly indicating that unfavorable behavior is acceptable, which increases incivility. Therefore, the leadership style exhibited by managers can affect incompatibility in the workplace as an important factor.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Passive leadership
  • Experienced incivility
  • Organizational incivility
  • Omran Kar Corporation
References
Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? the spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace, Academy of Management Review, 24, 452–471.
Akhavan bitaghsir, S.; Safari, A., & Shaemi Barzaki, A. (2017). Investigation of organizational civilization: the role of cyber-civilization and other factors, Journal of Organizational Behavior Studies, 6(3). (In Persian)
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1997). Full-range of leadership development: manual for the multifactor leadership question-naire. palo alto, ca: mind garden.
Blau, G., & Andersson, L. M. (2005). Testing a measure of instigated workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 595–614.
Bunk, J. A., & Magley, V. J. (2013). The role of appraisals and emotions in understanding experiences of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18,87–105.
Cameron, A. F., & Webster, J. (2012). Relational outcomes of multi-communicating: Integrating incivility and social exchange perspectives. Organization Science, 22, 754–771.
Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33, 55–75.
Cortina, L. M.; Kabat-Farr, D.; Leskinen, E. A.; Huerta, M., & Magley, V. J. (2013). Selective incivility as modern discrimination in organizations: evidence and impact. Journal of Management, 39, 1579–1605.
Cortina, L. M.; Lonsway, K. A.; Magley, V. J.; Freeman, L. V.; Collinsworth, L. L.; Hunter, M., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2002). What’s gender got to do with it? Incivility in the federal courts. Law & Social Inquiry, 27(2), 235–270.
Cortina, L. M.; Magley, V. J.; Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6,64–80.
Darini, V.; Taban, M.; Sharafi, V., & Veiseh, S. (2016). Examining the impact of employees' job alienation on appearing group anti-citizenship behaviors. Quarterly Journal of Public Organzations Management, 4(1), 65-76. (In Persian)
Gholipour, A.; Saeedi Nezhad, M., & Hassangholopour, H. (2012), The effect of Ramadan fasting on organizational civil conduct, Journal of Islamic Management Science and Research, 20(2), 55-73. (In Persian)
Goh, A. (2016). An attributional analysis of counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to occupational stress. unpublished doctoral dissertation, department of psychology, university of South Florida.
Golparvar. M., & Ghorayshi R. S. (2015). Prediction of organizational citizenship behaviors and deviant behaviors through impression management components. Social work mag, 4(1),3-15. (In Persian)
Holtz, B. C., & Harold, C. M. (2014). The effects of passive leadership on workplace incivility, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 16–38
Karen, S., & Gail, Sears Humiston, (2015). The role of emotion in workplace incivility, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(4); 390-405.
Kern, J. H., & Grandey, A. A. (2009). Customer incivility as a social stressor: The role of race and racial identity for service employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 46–57.
Lim, S., & Cortina, L. M. (2005). Interpersonal mistreatment in the workplace: the interface and impact of general incivility and sexual harassment, Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 483-496.
Lim, S., & Lee, A. (2012). Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help? Journal of Occupa-tional Health Psychology, 16, 95–111.
Lim, V. K., & Teo, T. S. (2009). Mind your e-manners: Impact of cyber incivility on employees. work attitude and behavior Information & Management, 46, 419–425.
Lotfi, M. H. (2012). Comparing management and leadership from the viewpoint of islam and the west, the first international conference on management, innovation and national production, Qom, Payam Noor University of Khuzestan province. (In Persian)
Mahmodroshanzamir, S.; Irani, H., & Yazdani, H. (2017). Identifying organizational factors affecting employees' deviant behavior (a survey: tehran university headquarters). culture in the islamic university, 7(23), 183-204. (In Persian)
Milam, A. C.; Spitzmueller, C., & Penney, L. M. (2009). Investigating individual differences among targets of workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14,58–69.
Miner-Rubino, K., & Cortina, L. M. (2004). Working in a context of hostility toward women: implications for employees’ well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 107–122.
Miner-Rubino, K., & Reed, W. D. (2011). Testing a moderated mediational model of workgroup incivility: the roles of organizational trust and group regard. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(12), 3148–3168.
Pearson, C. M., & Porath, C. L. (2011). On incivility, its impact, and directions for future research. In R. W. Griffin, & A. M O’Leary-Kelly (Eds.), the dark side of organizational behavior (pp. 403–425). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Pearson, C., & Porath, C. (2009). The cost of bad behavior: How incivility is damaging your business and what to do about it, New York: Penguin.
Porath, C. L., & Erez, A. (2009). Overlooked but not untouched: how rudeness reduces onlookers’ performance on routine and creative tasks. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 109,29–44.
Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C. M. (2014). The price of incivility: Lack of respect hurts morale—and the bottom line. harvard busi-ness review, January–February, 115–121.
Robinson, S. L., & O’Leary-Kelly, A. M. (1998). Monkey see, monkey do: the influence of work groups on the antisocial behavior of employees. Academy of Management Journal, 41, 658–672.
Rousseau, D. M.; Manning, J., & Denyer, D. (2008). Evidence in management and organizational science: assembling the field’s full weight of scientific knowledge through syntheses. The Academy of Management Annals, 2(1), 475–515.
Sakurai, K., & Jex, S. M. (2012). Coworker incivility and incivility targets’ work effort and counterproductive work behaviors: the moderating role of supervisor social support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 150–161.
Sulu, S.; Cylan. A., & Kaynak, R. (2014). Work alienation as a mediator of the relationship between organizational injustice and organizational commitment: implications for healthcare. Professionals international journal of business and management, 5(8), 27-38.
Yaghoobi, N. M.; Moghaddami, M., & Kaikha, A. (2011). A survey of the relationship between transformational leadership and staff organizational citizenship behavior. Management (TMJ), 2(4), 64-96. (In Persian)