نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار دانشگاه تهران
2 کارشناس ارشد کارآفرینی دانشگاه تهران
با وجود افزایش مطالعات دوسوتوانی سازمانی، کشف فرصتهای جدید، همزمان با بهرهبرداری از صلاحیتهای موجود، دانش اندکی در مورد عوامل مؤثر بر شکلگیری رفتارهای دوسوتوانی کارکنان وجود دارد. پژوهش حاضر به بررسی رابطه گرایش کارآفرینانه فردی کارکنان (با ابعاد تمایل به نوآوری، ریسکپذیری و پیشگامی) و اخلاقگرایی با دوسوتوانی زمینهای فردی میپردازد. این تحقیق از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از لحاظ روش گردآوری دادهها، توصیفی است. دادهها بر اساس پرسشنامه از 203 نفر از کارکنان کسبوکارهای حوزه صنایع غذایی در شهر تهران جمعآوری و با نرمافزار SmartPLS تحلیل شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان میدهد که گرایش کارآفرینانه و اخلاقگرایی، دوسوتوانی فردی را افزایش میدهد، اما تأثیر تعدیلگر اخلاقگرایی بر رابطه بین گرایش کارآفرینانه و دوسوتوانی فردی تأیید نشد. این نتایج نشان داد که رفتارهای اکتشافی حین انجام وظایف روزمره را از کارکنانی میتوان انتظار داشت که دارای گرایش کارآفرینانه و اخلاقگرایی بیشتری هستند.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Effect of Employees’ Individual Characteristics on Contextual Ambidextrous Behaviors
- Kamal Sakhdari 1
- Hassan Abedini 2
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran
2 M.A in Entrepreneurship, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran
One of the main challenges for businesses to achieve better and higher performance is to discover new opportunities in addition to taking advantage of existing opportunities and resources. organizational ambidexterity is defined as balancing the conflicting activities of exploration (identifying new ideas and opportunities) and exploitation (making the best use of existing resources and opportunities). empirical results show that ambidextrous organizations have higher performance than their competitors. According to the organizational ambiguity literature, organizations use different mechanisms to achieve organizational ambidexterity. One of the most common ways is structural separation (structural ambidexterity) in which the organization creates a separate unit (such as a research and development unit) to carry out exploratory activities. however, there are problems such as reducing the possibility of knowledge integration between units and agency costs due to structural separation. Recently, researchers have pointed out the importance of synchronizing exploration and exploitation behaviors at the individual level. The so-called contextual ambiguity refers to ambidextrous behaviors performed by employees in the organization. In other words, instead of creating separate structural units, employees are encouraged to perform exploratory behaviors while doing their daily work. However, the challenges of innovative behaviors discourage employees from undertaking ambidextrous behaviors. Research on contextual ambidextrous is emerging and mainly focused on the effects of contextual ambiguity as well as the favorable organizational environment for such behaviors. There is little knowledge about individual factors affecting employees’ ambidextrous behaviors, especially in developing countries like iran. therefore, the main purpose of this study is to identify the individual affecting factors of contextual ambidexterity as well as the individual moderators.
The current study integrates the entrepreneurial orientation theory and the ethical orientation literature to suggest that employees with higher levels of entrepreneurial and ethical orientations are more likely to get engaged in contextual ambidexterity behaviors and that there is a synergetic effect between these two orientations in shaping individual ambidextrous behaviors. the entrepreneurial orientation theory suggests that not all people are equally inclined to innovate and take the risks of entrepreneurial actions. Researches on intra-entrepreneurship also show that one of the main reasons for employees’ low entrepreneurial behaviors is the risks associated with them such as dismissal and job loss. Therefore, employees with a more entrepreneurial orientation are expected to be more involved in individual ambidextrous behaviors. The second theoretical basis is based on research on ethics and moral orientation suggesting the values and ethical standards guide individuals’ behaviors. It is suggested that the opportunistic behaviors resulting from having authority for innovation and creativity are less likely in individuals with low moral orientation and, as a result, morality increases the employees’ ambidextrous behaviors. Since entrepreneurial and ethical orientation can shape employees’ innovative behaviors, it seems that they reinforce each other and have a synergistic effect on ambidextrous behaviors.
The food industry in iran is one of the most dynamic industries and employees’ ambidextrous behaviors are more likely to happen in such contexts. therefore, the current research was accomplished in this industry and surveyed the employees of food companies in tehran. needed data was gathered by distributing a questionnaire and 203 well-qualified ones were finally returned. After investigating the measurement models, the reliability and validity of variables were confirmed. The conceptual model was estimated using regression analysis.
4-RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
The results indicated that both the entrepreneurial and ethical orientation positively influenced employees’ ambidextrous behaviors. However, contrary to the prediction, the synergetic effect of these orientations was not confirmed, implying that they independently affect contextual ambidexterity in organizations.
5-CONLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS
While the literature on ambidexterity research is growing, there is little knowledge about its individual-level antecedents. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of entrepreneurial and ethical orientations on employees’ ambidextrous behaviors. the results confirmed the first hypothesis that employees’ entrepreneurial orientation has a positive effect on their ambidextrous behaviors. in other words, employees who tend to be more innovative, proactive, and risk-taker are more likely to engage in exploratory behaviors while doing their daily work. the findings also confirmed that employees with more professional ethics are more likely to engage in exploratory and innovative behavior. These results provide new insights for linking ethical variables to individual and organizational outputs. While previous research has focused on applying mechanisms, such as performance management, to control opportunistic behaviors resulting from employee authority, this research shows that internal control due to ethics can encourage employees to undertake ambidextrous behaviors. this is particularly important in the moral and cultural context of Iran. However, contrary to expectations, the third hypothesis representing the synergistic effect of entrepreneurship and ethics on contextual ambidexterity was not confirmed. it seems that each of these variables independently affects ambidextrous behaviors. Future research can identify potential moderators and other predictors by examining this relationship in other fields and industries, and especially by conducting in-depth exploratory qualitative research.
- contextual ambidexterity
- entrepreneurial orientation
- ethical orientation
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