نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار مدیریت بازرگانی موسسه آموزش عالی بینالود

2 استادیار دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

از جمله راهکارهای جلوگیری از فساد در سازمان، سوت زنی است. اما سوت زنان همواره با فشارها و تهدیدهایی مواجه هستند و حمایت های سازمانی و قانونی از آنان، ضروری است. پژوهش حاضر در قالب دو فرضیه به بررسی اثر حمایت های حقوقی و سازمانی ادراک شده کارکنان بر تمایل به سوت زنی آنان پرداخته است. تمایل به سوت زنی برای شش نوع تخلف شامل دزدی، هدر دادن منابع، سوء مدیریت، مشکلات ایمنی، آزارهای جنسی، تبعیض و نقض عامدانه قانون سنجیده شده است. جامعه آماری شامل کارکنان بانک های خصوصی بوده است. نظر به نامحدود بودن جامعه بر اساس جدول مورگان، پرسشنامه آنلاین در میان گروه های مجازی کارکنان توزیع و با رسیدن تعداد پرسشنامه های تکمیل شده به 384 پرسشنامه قابل استفاده، جمع آوری داده به اتمام رسید. برای جمع آوری داده ها از پرسشنامه حمایت سازمانی، پرسشنامه حمایت قانونی از سوت زن و تمایل به سوت زنی استفاده شد که پایایی و روایی آن ها تایید شد. داده ها به روش مدل یابی معادلات ساختاری، آزمون شدند. نتایج نشان داد که حمایت های قانونی و سازمانی ادراک شده کارکنان تقریباً ناچیز است. تمایل به سوت زنی نیز برای همه مولفه ها، بجز نقض عمدی قوانین و مقررات و نیز مشکلات مربوط به ایمنی محیط کار، از متوسط کمتر بوده است. آزمون فرضیات نشان داد که حمایت های سازمانی و حمایت های قانونی ادراک شده، بر تمایل به سوت زنی اثر معنادار دارند. همچنین نتایج حاکی از تفاوت معنادار در تمایل به سوت زنی در میان انواع تخلفات است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of perceived legal and organizational support on whistleblowing organizational violations in the banking industry

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra mohamadzadeh 1
  • mohsen lal alizadeh 2

1 binalood

2 payam noor assistant professor

چکیده [English]

One of the most important ways to prevent the spread of corruption and fraud, both at the macro and organizational levels, is whistleblowing. However, whistleblowing is never simply possible, and whistleblowers are always facing with pressures, threats, harassment, and even revenge. Therefore, effective and appropriate organizational and legal support for them is essential. Various studies have mentioned different incentives and barriers to whistleblowing. One of the key factors in encouraging employees to disclose violations is the perceived organizational support variable. If employees feel that the organization supports their disclosure actions, this motivation will help them overcome other barriers and whistle. But the factor that has received less attention in this regard, especially in Iran, is the legal protections perceived by the employees. Due to the ignorance of employees about the legal consequences of whistling in Iran, etc., probably one of the most important obstacles to whistleblowing is the lack of protection by law. Therefore, the present study deals with both aspects of organizational support and legal support and their role in the desire of employees to expose violations of the organization. The present study, based on two hypotheses, examines the effect of perceived legal support and perceived organizational support of employees on their whistleblowing intentions. The whistleblowing intentions for six types of offenses includes theft, wasting organizational resources, mismanagement, safety issues, sexual harassment, discrimination, and finally deliberate violations of the law. The research took an applied and survey method. The statistical population included all employees of private banks in Iran. Due to the numerous number of statistical population and according to Morgan's table, the online questionnaire was distributed among the virtual groups of employees of the private banks. With the number of completed questionnaires reaching 384 usable questionnaires, the data collection phase was completed. For data collection, the organizational support questionnaire of Rudhas et al. (2001), the legal support questionnaire of the legal support assessor of whistleblowing (2009) and to assess the whistleblowing intention, the research of Near et al. (2004) was used. The reliability of questionnaires were approved using Alpha Cronbach and factor analysis. Structural validity (convergent and divergent) was used to assess the validity of the content validity assessment tool. Data gathered were tested by structural equation modeling with spss and Amos. Respondents were 69% male and 31% female. 18.5% were 20 to 30 years old, 63% were 30 to 40 years old, 14.8% were 40 to 50 years old, and 3.7% were 50 to 60 years old. 46.8% of the respondents had 10 to 20 years of work experience, 40.5% had less than 10 years of work experience and the rest, had more than 20 years of work experience. Education About half of the respondents had a bachelor's degree (49.4%) and then a master's degree (43.2%), about 5% had a diploma and the rest, ie 2.5%, had a doctorate. The skewness and elongation values of the variables are also calculated, and since their values are in the range of +_2for all variables, the normality of the distribution of the variables is confirmed. The results of the correlation test of variables show that the two variables of organizational and legal support have a significant and relatively significant relationship with each other, but there was no significant correlation between the tendency to whistle and legal and organizational support. The results showed that perceived legal support and perceived organizational support of employees is almost low. The whistleblowing intention was also below average for all components, except for intentional violations of rules and regulations, as well as issues related to workplace safety. The hypothesis test also showed that organizational support and perceived legal protections have a significant effect on the tendency to whistle and also the results indicate a significant difference in the tendency to whistle among different types of violations. This study had a small approach to employees' views on support and their willingness to whistle, but given the relative novelty of this field of study, especially at the organizational level, it can certainly be useful and interesting to adopt qualitative approaches and discover deeper motivations of employees. Also, the present study remains at the examining attitudes (whistleblowing intentions) and does not examine their actual behavior. It is suggested that future studies examine the actual whistleblowing behavior by considering quantitative and comparative statistics. In general, there is a lack of statistical studies to explain the general position of organizational whistling in both the private and public sectors in the country, and there are no reliable statistics on whistling employees and exposing corruption and the fate of whistleblowers. Discussion about the results is available.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Perceived Legal Support
  • Perceived Organizational Support
  • Whistling
  • Disclosure
  • Banking Industry
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